Sunday, June 10, 2007
List of Pre-Columbian Civilizations
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This list of pre-Colombian civilizations includes those civilizations and cultures of the Americas which flourished prior to the European colonization of the Americas.
In particular, these pre-Colombian civilizations can be said to have established characteristics such as permanent or urban settlements, agriculture, and complex societal hierarchies.
Many of these civilizations had long ceased to function by the time of the first permanent European arrivals (c. late 15th - early 16th centuries), and are known only through archaeological investigations. Others were contemporary with this period, and are also known from historical accounts of the time. A few (such as the Maya) had their own written records. However, most Europeans of the time largely viewed such text as heretical and few survived Christian pyres. Only a few hidden documents remain today, leaving modern historians with glimpses of ancient culture and knowledge.
From both indigenous American and European accounts and documents, American civilizations at the time of European encounter possessed many impressive feats such as the most populous city in the world as well as modern theory of astronomy and mathematics.
Where they persist, the societies and cultures which gave rise to these civilizations may now be subtantively different in form to that of the original. However, many of these peoples and their descendants still uphold various traditions and practices which relate back to these earlier times, even if combined with those more recently-adopted.
1 North America
3 South America
4 See also
5 External links
 North America
Poverty Point culture
Ancient Pueblo (Anasazi) culture
 South America
 See also
Indigenous peoples of the Americas – for coverage on present-day indigenous societies.
Cultural periods of Peru
List of archaeological periods in North America
 External links
LostWorlds.org An Interactive Museum of the American Indian
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_pre-Columbian_cultures"
Categories: Pre-Columbian cultures Archaeology of the Americas
Labels: Pre-Columbian Civilizations
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